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[English title not available]. Rubus armeniacus Focke Himalayan blackberry. Species Rubus argutus Link – sawtooth blackberry P: Species Rubus arizonensis Focke – Arizona dewberry P: Species Rubus armeniacus Focke – Himalayan blackberry P: Species Rubus arvensis L.H. This has been confirmed for New Zealand, however, its presence in Australia and South Africa is contested due to taxonomic confusion. An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland. On the other hand, when established, R. armeniacus thickets provide habitats and a source of food for many birds and both small and large mammals. Plant Disease, 94(5):581-588. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis, Jones DK, 2004. Common names: Himalayan blackberry. This was the first report of the fungus in the USA and has since been recorded in British Columbia, Canada (Callan et al., 2011). Thickets have been reported to produce between 7,000-13,000 seeds /m2. Himalayan blackberry Rubus armeniacus, a dicot, is a shrub that is not native ... USDA PLANTS Profile (RUAR9) BONAP Distribution Map. BfN-Skripten, 184:185. http://bie.ala.org.au/, Bennett JR; Young EJ; Giblin DE; Dunwiddie PW; Arcese P, 2011. In 1835 it was introduced to Germany by Booth, who named it R. fruticosus fr. It has however been noted that thickets of R. armeniacus are not a good substitute for diverse vegetation such as in native forests and in riparian zones (Soll, 2004). endstream endobj 203 0 obj <. For more information on noxious weed regulations and definitions, see Noxious weed lists and laws.Although control of Himalayan blackberry is not required, it is recommended in protected wilderness areas and in natural lands that are being restore… Rubus armeniacus - a neglected invasive plant, significant in local activities of nature conservation. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. Foliar applied herbicides have been reported most effective when the plants are in full leaf and this can be enhanced when the plants are water stressed (Soll, 2004). In: Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/. Ingestion by birds or mammals and long warm periods followed by long cold periods aid germination. It is established or naturalized along the Western and East-Central USA: from California to British Colombia on the West Coast and middle sections in the east, from Delaware to Virginia. The consequence of the common erroneous usage of both R. procerus and R. discolor is that much of the information in the literature on R. armeniacus is confounded by voluminous references to the above two ‘synonyms’. It is also sometimes unclear in the literature whether the authors are referring to R. armeniacus or other closely related taxa (Francis, 2014). Pullman, Washington, USA: USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Plant Materials Center, 3 pp. Himalayan blackberry facts from the Invasive Species Council of British Columbia (ISCBC) Information about the Himalayan blackberry from the Government of King County, Washington; Nutrients in blackberries from the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Questions & Answers. R. armeniacus has two frequently used, but incorrect, synonyms that cause much confusion, R. procerus and R. discolor. Klein H, 2011. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). Last revised by: USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team: Curated and maintained by: USDA … Atlas of Living Australia., http://bie.ala.org.au/. Invasive plant species in the Swedish flora: Developing criteria and definitions, and assessing the invasiveness of individual taxa. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Not only does this species propagate from root fragments, stem cuttings, and adventitious buds, but it also sets root and forms daughter plants where its rambling stems touch the ground, resulting in virtual cloning. "B" rated weeds - Armenian blackberry. Sharing information, and policy, on potentially invasive alien plants in botanic gardens. (Pomoloske karakteristike nekih divljih vrsti kupine (Rubus spp) u SR Makedoniji.) GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : The Himalayan blackberry is a robust, clambering or sprawling, evergreen shrub which grows up to 9.8 feet (3 m) in height [25,31].Leaves are pinnately to palmately compound, with three to five broad leaflets [25,31].Mature leaves are green and glaucous above but tomentose beneath [].Stems of most blackberries are biennial. Roots can sprout at the tips and both root and cane cuttings can establish new plants. Department of Primary Industries Weed Management Unit NSW, 2009. Dynamics of Rubus ulmifolius Schott var. ex Genev Soll J, 2004. Raab-Straube E von, Raus T, 2015. Sharing information, and policy, on potentially invasive alien plants in botanic gardens., http://www.botanicgardens.eu/aliens/aliens.xls, Francis JK, 2014. The Rubus flora of the island of Amrum (Northern Germany). This species spreads aggressively and has severe negative impacts to native plants, wildlife and livestock. maximo and it became the most frequently cultivated blackberry in Europe. It is abundant in riparian zones, edges of wetlands and other areas that experience occasional flooding such as irrigation channels. Georgia, USA: Centre for invasive species and ecosystem health, University of Georgia. Focke. It grows upright on open ground and will climb over and trail over other vegetation. 0 Rubus argutus. Himalayan blackberry is a tall semi-woody shrub, characterized by thorny stems and dark edible fruits. Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations Paper 61. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Himalayan blackberry Rubus discolor Weihe and Nees. It is possible that the species is not present and has been mistakenly referred to as R. frucitosus as it belongs to the R. frucitosus aggregate, or as in the USA, the species has been mistaken for R. procerus. Himalaya blackberry fruits are highly edible and commonly collected by berry pickers. Rubus argutus. Digging is labour intensive, but when thoroughly undertaken, i.e. Flowering occurs in their second or even third years (Francis, 2014). It is now present in most of temperate regions of the world. 154. Rubus argutus. [English title not available]. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Himalayan Blackberry is a highly aggressive, invasive weed in my area, Zone 8a Maritime Pacific Northwest. (0.9-2.4 cm) long and are palmately compound with 5 leaflets. Australian Systematic Botany, 16(4):527-537. DOI:10.1023/B:GRES.0000024026.26655.d7, Haveman R, Ronde I de, Bijlsma R J, Schaminée J, 2014. Wallingford, UK: CABI. It grows upright on open ground and will climb over and trail over other vegetation. http://aknhp.uaa.alaska.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Rubus_discolor_BIO_RUDI2.pdf. The thickets can reach densities of up to 525 stems (canes) /m2 and the individual canes can reach 6-12 m horizontally and 3 m vertically. Plant guide for Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus). Alaska, USA: University of Alaska Anchorage. Chromosome numbers of Rubus species at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository. Vegetative reproduction is the dominant form and occurs in several ways. An Invasive Plant and a Noxious Weed. Featured News The Benefits of Fall Planting Keep your eyes sharp for puncturevine! Chromosome numbers of Polish brambles (Rubus L., Rosaceae) III. Invaded range of the blackberry pathogen Phragmidium violaceum in the Pacific Northwest of the USA and the search for its provenance. Note scale. Himalayan Blackberry flower, Bay Area, California. Himalayan blackberry Rubus discolor Weihe and Nees., Alaska, USA: University of Alaska Anchorage. Atlas of Living Australia. Himalayan blackberry has been found in the throughout the Salmon Creek watershed, including the Salmon Creek Greenway. Rubus argutus. Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry), formerly known as Rubus discolor, is a sprawling, essentially evergreen, glandless, robust shrub (family Rosaceae). It was introduced to Europe in 1835, and Australasia and North America in 1885, for its fruit, but soon escaped and naturalized (Wikipedia 2010). It is also often found in sites following fire as it is well adapted to colonize recently burnt sites (USA Forestry Service, 2015). It was first introduced beyond its native range for its tasty fruits. NSW Department of Primary Industries Weed Management Unit, 2009, European Botanic Gardens Consortium (2014), Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause), Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2015, http://www.surreyflora.org.uk/Documents/flora05.pdf, http://www.ou.edu/cas/botany-micro/ben/ben230.html, http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PDF/PESTNOTES/pnwildblackberries.pdf, http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/10999?show=full, http://aknhp.uaa.alaska.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Rubus_discolor_BIO_RUDI2.pdf, http://www.oregon.gov/oda/shared/Documents/Publications/Weeds/ArmeniablackberryProfile.pdf, http://extension.oregonstate.edu/coos/sites/default/files/agriculture/cces213blackberryrustfungusmay2012.pdf, http://www.invasive.org/gist/moredocs/rubarm01.pdf, http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_ruar9.pdf, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/detail.asp?weed=111#pagetop, http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/esm_fac/61, http://www.botanicgardens.eu/aliens/aliens.xls, http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Rubus%20discolor.pdf, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Bailey – field blackberry P: Species Rubus audax L.H. in the Macedonian Socialist Republic. Local Watershed Distribution. The Nature Conservancy. Posted on 09.26.16 by SWCD Admin. The specie can outcompete many native North American species and degrades natural ecosystems. Fire effects information system., USA: USDA. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Himalayan blackberry is considered a Washington State Class C noxious weed and control is recommended throughout the state, though not required. Packaged with care in Florida, USA. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. endstream endobj startxref It is also a host to the leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis, which carries the bacteria and facilitates the spread of the disease (Calflora, 2015). Himalayan blackberry. As a result seed viability and seedling recruitment is limited by shading present in mature thickets (Soll, 2004). Himalayan Blackberry, Armenian Blackberry, Arizona Blackberry (Rubus armeniacus) by Xenomorf May 15, 2010 11:08 AM Himalayan Blackberry in Morwell National Park in Victoria, Australia, December 1990 Himalayan blackberry Rubus armeniacus, a dicot, is a shrub that is not native ... USDA PLANTS Profile (RUAR9) BONAP Distribution Map. Note spider on bottom petal. Rubus armeniacus Focke, an unnoticed invader in the Hungarian flora. Comparing Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus) management techniques in upland prairie communities of the W.L. California Invasive Plants Council. Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry); seeds from fruits. Shaw says the Himalayan blackberry erodes soil and crowds out native plants and animals. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PDF/PESTNOTES/pnwildblackberries.pdf. An individual Himalayan blackberry plant lives for only two or three years. Caplan and Yeakley 2006; Clark and Jasiekuk, 2012). Focke. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html. USDA-ARS, 2015. Each treatment caused the species to decline but there was not a significant difference between the three treatments (Ingham, 2014). Rubus anglocandicans (Rosaceae) is the most widespread taxon of European blackberry in Australia. There were three plots with Himalayan blackberry borders adjacent to raspberry, and three plots with wheat (2011) or grass seed (2012) which is non-host vegetation adjacent to raspberry. In: CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape. Himalayan blackberry is an introduced invasive species of Rubus that originates in Armenia. %%EOF It can be difficult to distinguish between species in the R. fruticosus aggregate, of which R. armeniacus belongs. (Die Rubus-Flora der Nordfriesischen Insel Amrum.) The fruit are less than 2 cm aggregates of black, shiny, roundish drupelets. When undertaking physical or chemical control methods of R. armeniacus, it is imperative to plant desirable native plant species on the site to help reduce re-invasion by R. armeniacus (Stannard, 2014). Kitaibelia, 19(2):220-228. Georgia, USA. "...the western European blackberry that Luther Burbank introduced in 1885 as 'Himalayan giant' has become a giant problem. Northwest Science, 80(1):9-17. http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/org_nws/nwsci_home.htm, Ceska A, 1999. Loos GH; Keil P, 2006. However, in wetlands, cutting to ground level has proven effective as without the supporting canes, roots are reportedly unable to survive in anaerobic conditions (Soll, 2004). ©Karan A. Rawlins/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US. It is common in riparian areas (Ertter 1993, Hoshovsky 2000). DiTomaso JM, 2010. Many publications also use the common name Himalayan blackberry when referring to both R. discolor and R. armeniacus. Phytocoenologia. Himalayan blackberry is a Class C noxious weed that is not selected for required control in King County. Wild blackberries integrated pest management for home gardeners and landscape professionals. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Himalayan blackberry, Rubus armeniacus. A PIER risk assessment gave this species a high risk score of 24 (PIER, 2015). Flowers: Blackberry flowers are white to pinkish, and consist of 5 stalked petals.They are approximately 2.5cm in diameter, and flowers are arranged in clusters of 5 to 20. Torbjorn T; Karlsson T; Rapp M; Sahlin U, 2015. Heredity, 109(5):320-328. http://www.nature.com/hdy. Himalayan blackberry (Rubus bifrons) tantalizes us with its sweet fruits in the summer and tortures us with its prickly vines all year long.Also known as Armenian Blackberry, this wide-spread and aggressive weed is native to Armenia and Northern Iran. Evans and Weber (2003) recently identified the R. fruticosus aggregate in Australia as a biotype of R. anglocandicans. Jugoslovensko Vocarstvo, 7(25/26):93-97. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Comparing Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus) management techniques in upland prairie communities of the W.L. Summary 2 Rubus armeniacus, Armenian Blackberry or Himalayan Blackberry, is a species of Rubus in the blackberry group Rubus subgenus Rubus series Discolores (P.J. For example, R. armeniacus is sometimes mistakenly referred to as R. frucitosus when it is only one of several species composing the R. frucitosus aggregate (Jones, 2004). Data Source. 10 of 2004) as set out in the schedule hereto. 77 (1), 1-88. Honey bees have also been reported to frequently visit the flowering species. Rubus in Surrey., Surrey, UK: Surrey Botanical Society. The fruit can be canned, frozen, or eaten fresh (Francis 2003). Information on California plants for education, research, and conservation. http://extension.oregonstate.edu/coos/sites/default/files/agriculture/cces213blackberryrustfungusmay2012.pdf, PIER, 2015. See USDA PLANTS database maps. Rubus procerus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 10 m (32ft 10in) at a fast rate. We inoculated potted plants of each species in the greenhouse and transferred all infected plants to two sites in the North Coast (Napa County, Mendocino County). Himalayan blackberry. The species is commonly found in disturbed areas such as along railway lines, roadsides and fence lines (DiTomaso et al., 2013). The Rubus genus is large and very complex consisting of more than 750 species. Online Database. The species is a common garden escape with dispersal aided by water, birds and small mammals. Himalayan blackberry tip-roots while the native does not. Müll. Stems grow to 15 ft. (4.6 m) before arching and trail the ground for up to 40 ft. (12.2 m). Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry) occurrence and growth in relation to soil and light conditions in western Oregon. Ceska (1999) reports that it is a common garden escape in nearly all European countries. In Australia, species from the R.fruticosus aggregate are present and recognized as invasive but R. armeniacus has not been recognized as a species from this group of national significance (NSW Department of Primary Industries Weed Management Unit, 2009). Wittenberg R, 2005. HortScience, 30(7):1447-1452. Wildlife readily consumes the fruit as well. It is now present in most of temperate regions of the world. This weed is a strong competitor. Gederaas L; Salvesen I; Viken A, 2007. Data Source and References for Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry) from the USDA PLANTS database 2p. PIER, 2015. 44 (1/2), 31-62. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/phyt/2014/00000044/F0020001/art00003 DOI:10.1127/0340-269X/2013/0043-0564, ISSG, 2015. It is native to Armenia and Northern Iran, and widely naturalised elsewhere. hybrid blackberry: L48(I) RUPE5: Rubus pensilvanicus × ursinus: hybrid blackberry: L48(I) PRYE: Prunus ×yedoensis: hybrid cherry: L48(I) PHAUA8: Phragmites australis ssp. Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armenaicus) is a perennial shrub that spreads vegetatively to form large mounds.The leaves of the first year shoots are 3 to 8 in long and consist of 5 leaflets arranged like the fingers of a hand. Haveman R; Ronde Ide; Bijlsma RJ; Schaminée J, 2014. Himalayan blackberry: USDA PLANTS Symbol: RUBI U.S. Nativity: Exotic Habit: Shrub or Subshrub Rubus bifrons Vest ex Tratt. A range of physical control methods focused on mechanical removal of both the vegetation and roots are available. Both these botanists support that the two synonyms are not valid, noting that R. praecoxand R. ulmifolius are two species endemic to Europe. The native high-bush blackberry can grow very tall and even arch over, but the canes never tip-root into the soil. A recent study from the Pacific Northwest of the USA, compared the effectiveness of high intensity, short duration goat grazing with mowing and goat grazing followed by mowing. Botanical Name: Rubus fruticosus. Plant fact sheet for orange eye butterflybush (Buddleja davidii) (PDF; 150 KB) Young-Mathews, A. Washington, USA: Noxious Weed Control Board. ... Methods to control blackberry thickets: Oregon State University Extension Service. USA. 258 0 obj <>stream R. armeniacus is not from the Himalayas as the common name would suggest, rather it originates from Eurasia and is considered to be native only to Armenia. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/, Johnson KB; Mahaffee WF, 2010. Himalayan blackberry Rubus arvensis field blackberry Rubus audax Tampa blackberry Rubus baileyanus Bailey's dewberry Rubus bartonianus Barton's ... USDA FS Southern Research Station (RUBUS) WA-Washington State University (RUBUS) WA … R. procerus is not a valid name for R. armeniacus, but rather a synonym of R. praecox (Ceska, 1999; The Plant list, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2015). Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Oregon, USA: Oregon State University. Foliage The leaves of the prima cane (first year shoots) are 2.8-7.9 in. Rubus armeniacus. It tolerates a wide range of soil types but is limited to temperate and continental climates (USDA-NRCS, 2015). There were three plots with Himalayan blackberry borders adjacent to raspberry, and three plots with wheat (2011) or grass seed (2012) which is non-host vegetation adjacent to raspberry. The PLANTS Database. It was first introduced to North America by Luther Burbank in 1885 and to New Zealand and Australia before 1885 (Ceska, 1999). General: Himalayan Blackberry is a mostly biennial bramble, mostly recognizable by its prickly stems and edible black berries.. The World Botanical Associates Webpage. Given that new plants can establish from cane and root cuttings, it is likely that accidental dispersal occurs when plant material is cut and carried and accidentally deposited on new sites. For example it has been referred to as the most widespread and economically disruptive noxious weed in western Oregon, USA (Oregon Department of Agriculture, 2015). The Himalayan blackberry is considered to be native to Armenia and is sometimes called the Armenian blackberry. Each method has reported advantages and disadvantages and several methods are often used in combination. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Yeakley JA; Caplan JS, 2008. Biological Invasions, 15(8):1847-1861. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-013-0413-3, Oregon Department of Agriculture, 2015. (Die Rubus-Flora der Nordfriesischen Insel Amrum.). USDA NRCS Corvallis Plant Materials Center. It has been reported that seed germination requires more than about 50% of full sunlight (Cal-IPC, 2015). Populations in Eastern Oregon are on the increase in Hells Canyon and along most other river systems. Oregon lists Himalayan blackberry as a noxious weed, and the California Invasive May 27, 2014 - horribly invasive yet tasty "Himalayan Blackberry" at USDA PLANTS database. A study across 91 islands in the Gulf Islands of British Columbia, Canada and the San Juan Islands of Washington state, USA, confirmed that birds play a key role in spreading R. armeniacus (Bennett et al., 2011). Leaves are toothed and typically compounded with five leaflets but atypically or on fruiting branches can be tri- or unifoliate. European Botanic Gardens Consortium, 2014. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. Kollmann J, 1998. Factors affecting the regrowth of Himalaya blackberry (Rubus armeniacus). Alien and invasive species lists in terms of sections 66(1), 67(1), 70(1)(a), 71(3) and 71A of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004 (Act No. In their second year, the shoots become smooth and produce flowering canes whose smaller leaves have 3 leaflets. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Rubus macrostemon f. armeniacus (Focke) Sprib. (0.9-2.4 cm) long and are palmately compound with 5 leaflets. USDA Plant Hardiness Map You are here: Home / Image Gallery / Profile Page / Large Image View of Rubus armeniacus Focke (Himalayan blackberry) Image Gallery R. armeniacus has been cultivated along fences and trellises to create impenetrable barriers (Francis, 2014). European Botanic Gardens Consortium, 2014. Rachis and petiole armed with heavy, recurved prickles. USA. Écoscience, 18(4):369-374. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-current-issue. Stems grow to 15 ft. (4.6 m) before arching and trail the ground for up to 40 ft. (12.2 m). Invasive plant species in the Swedish flora: Developing criteria and definitions, and assessing the invasiveness of individual taxa. Identification key in: Hickman, J. ed. State agriculture or … The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. in Australia. R. armeniacus is valued for its large fruit and is cultivated in Europe for both domestic and commercial fruit production. Ensley JL, 2015. Rubus, Rosaceae. It tolerates a wide range of soil types, growing in fine, medium and coarse textured soils that are acid to alkaline. ©Julia Scher/Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US Ripe fruit: Rubus parviflorus (thimbleberry); ripe fruit. North American Fungi, 6(14):1. http://www.pnwfungi.org/articles_volume_6.htm, Caplan JS; Yeakley JA, 2006. The chromosome number for R. armeniacus was reported as 2n = 28 (Thompson, 1995). Corvallis, OR. In: E.R.I.C.A, 25 97-116. Additionally, it grows along roadsides, creek gullies, river flats, and fence lines. Seeds germinate in spring and once seedlings are established much of the subsequent reproduction is vegetative. The plant is self-fertile. CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape. anoplothyrsus Sudre and other cultivated blackberries in Italy. The strong, robust canes grow up to 20 feet tall in a year. 2011. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2015. R. armeniacus is a perennial shrub native to Armenia. An explanation for this confusion is that R. armeniacus has been mistaken for R. praecox and thus confused for R. procerus (Jones, 2004). Himalayan Blackberry (Rubus armeniacus Focke; synonyms: R. discolor, R. procerus) Rose family (Rosaceae) Himalayan blackberry was introduced into the U.S. in the late 1800s for cultivation and has since naturalized and spread out beyond planted areas. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Rubus armeniacus, the Himalayan blackberry or Armenian blackberry, is a species of Rubus in the blackberry group Rubus subgenus Rubus series Discolores (P.J. * Parts Used: Whole Blackberry. Caution : Himalayan Blackberry has become naturalized in the northeastern U.S., from Delaware to Virginia, but especially in the Pacific Northwest, from southern British Columbia eastward to Idaho and south to northern California. Rubus armeniacus Focke, an unnoticed invader in the Hungarian flora. It was introduced outside of its native range as a cultivated crop for the production of sweet fruits. It is reported to be naturalized and one of the most common blackberry species in several Western European countries including Germany and the Netherlands. September 2011. In many cases more than one application may be needed. http://plants.usda.gov/, Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2015. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Himalayan blackberry is a tall semi-woody shrub, characterized by thorny stems and dark edible fruits. Willdenowia, 45(1):119-129. The species tolerates occasional flooding with both fresh and brackish water. Discolores in the Czech Republic and adjacent regions. In the Pacific Northwest of the USA, this species is an important part of rural culture with many business names referring to the blackberry (Stannard, 2014). When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. R. armeniacus prefers full sunlight but also grows well under light canopies. USDA Forest Service, 2015. An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland. R armeniacus was intentionally introduced into a number of areas for its production of fruits where it has since escaped cultivation. Müll.) Oregon, USA. Leaf generally with 5 separated leaflets, sharply toothed edges, whitish on underside; native blackberry leaf always has 3 leaflets. 1993. Hardy to USDA Zone 6 Native to much western Europe, and apparently there is no evidence that it is native of the Himalayan region. It is in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The canes of Himalayan blackberry can reach lengths of 40 feet and are typically green to deep red in color. Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus Focke), a perennial woody shrub native to western Europe, reproduces by seed and vegetatively. The seed coat is impermeable and the embryo remains dormant until it breaks (Ensley, 2015). Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Davis, California, USA: Weed Research and Information Center, University of California, 544 pp. Two of the canes are primary and two are one year old. 202 0 obj <> endobj "...the western European blackberry that Luther Burbank introduced in 1885 as 'Himalayan giant' has become a giant problem. Finley National Wildlife Refuge. The Rubus flora of the island of Amrum (Northern Germany). http://aknhp.uaa.alaska.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Rubus_discolor_BIO_RUDI2.pdf. The strong, robust canes grow up to 20 feet tall in a year. Avian dispersal of exotic shrubs in an archipelago. eastward to Idaho (USDA 2002). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. (Le genre Rubus l. (rosaceae) dans le Massif Armoricain et Ses Abords : une nouvelle approche, et une premiere espece a reviser, r. caesius l.) E.R.I.C.A, 25:97-116. Main content area. Taxonomy of Rubus ser. The occurrence of polyploidy, hybridization and apomixis all contribute to the huge complexity of its taxonomy. Rubus armeniacus occurs in California in the coast ranges, Central Valley, and Sierra Nevada. Oregon, USA: Oregon State University. www.botanicgardens.eu/aliens/aliens.xls. Anecdotal and official awareness of the risks will likely limit the risk of further introduction. Focke. R. armeniacus is predominantly evergreen but does die back with colder temperatures. Nevertheless, this species can produce a large number of seeds which are readily dispersed into new areas by water, birds and small mammals and can also spread locally by vegetative growth. The mean annual rainfall for its distribution is 760 mm, however, in drier climates it is confined to riparian zones or alongside artificial waterways (Francis, 2014). Online Database. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and … As the taxonomic confusion suggests R. armeniacus is easily confused with other species. In: Aboretum Kórnickie, 5-9. Torbjorn T, Karlsson T, Rapp M, Sahlin U, 2015. (Észrevétlen özönfaj a magyar flórában, az örmény szeder (Rubus armeniacus Focke).) Phytocoenologia, 44(1/2):31-62. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/phyt/2014/00000044/F0020001/art00003, Ingham CS, 2014. Blackberry control manual: management and control options for blackberry (Rubus spp.) June, 2005. Pomological characteristics of some wild blackberry species (Rubus spp.) For example, R. discolor has been incorrectly declared a weed or noxious weed in a number of states in the USA (USDA-ARS, 2015) and numerous academic publications refer to the three Rubus species as synonyms (e.g. Himalaya blackberry Rosaceae Rubus armeniacus Focke symbol: RUAR9 Leaf: Alternate, palmately compound (usually 5 leaflets), persistent (often barely); leaflets oval, 1 1/2 to 3 inches long, dark green above with a heavy white bloom below, margins serrate. Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry); fruits and foliage. Similarly disking or ploughing should be repeated and care taken that the rhizomes are not spread further. Comparing Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus) management techniques in upland prairie communities of the W.L. Last revised by: USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team: Curated and maintained by: USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team : Data Documentation. CABI, Undated. We focused on five riparian hosts: Himalayan blackberry, California blackberry, blue elderberry, periwinkle, and California grapevine. Berkeley, California, USA: California Invasive Plants Council. Certifications: Certified USDA Organic. Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry); foliage and canes. This species is highly invasive and can form impenetrable thickets which have a negative impact on native flora and fauna. Flowers are white to rose coloured and have five transversely arranged petals. Symbol Scientific Name Other Common Names; RUDI2: Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees: Himalayan blackberry RUPR: Rubus procerus auct. Himalayan blackberry Author: Gaire, R., Astley, C., Upadhyaya, M. K., Clements, D. R., Bargen, M. Source: (Észrevétlen özönfaj a magyar flórában, az örmény szeder (Rubus armeniacus Focke)). Bugwood Wiki, 2015. There is a lack of quantitative analysis on what these costs amount to but estimates for North America are in the order of millions of dollars (Peters, 2012). Origin: Grown and freeze-dried in Brazil or USA. Each drupe contains a single, hard, flattened seed (Soll, 2004; Francis, 2014; Ensley, 2015). ©Leslie J. Mehrhoff/University of Connecticut/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US. Systematic randomised sampling along three landscape transects in the Netherlands reveals the geographically structured variation in Rubus scrubs. ©Julia Scher/Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US, Reported as R. discolor (synonym of R. armeniacus), Recorded as potentially invasive; Original citation: Gederaas L Salvesen I Viken A (2007), Noted as aggressive, common and increasing rapidly, Reported as R. discolor (synonym of R. armeniacus) on Maui and Oahu Islands, Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. It was used in the development of the hybrid marionberry cultivar, ‘Marion’ (Waldo 1957). September, 2011. (ID# 10659). The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects, Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion). Aboretum Kórnickie:5-9. http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/10999?show=full. Thompson MM, 1995. Compendium record. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Other Names: Scaldhead, Himalayan blackberry, Himalayaberry, craneberries, brambles. The canes do not flower in their first year and grow between 2-10 m in length. Flowers: Blackberry flowers are white to pinkish, and consist of 5 stalked petals.They are approximately 2.5cm in diameter, and flowers are arranged in clusters of 5 to 20. The flower stalks are woolly and prickly. Trondheim, Norway: Artsdatabanken, 111 pp. The environment in practice 0629. Botanical Electronic News, 230., Canada. 2007 Norwegian black List - ecological risk analysis of alien species. Hardy to USDA Zone 6 Native to much western Europe, and apparently there is no evidence that it is native of the Himalayan region. It was introduced outside of its native range as a cultivated crop for the production of sweet fruits. Finley National Wildlife Refuge. Factors influencing epidemiology and management of blackberry rust in cultivated Rubus laciniatus. A Large Image of Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry) from the USDA PLANTS database : Name Search: name search type enter a search name State Search ... Rubus armeniacus Focke - Himalayan blackberry RUAR9 ©Robin R. Buckallew. In the winter the fruiting canes senesce while the first year canes produce branches and will set fruit the following year (Jones, 2004). Invasive Plant Science and Management, 7(3):532-539. http://wssajournals.org/loi/ipsm, ISSG, 2015. It soon escaped cultivation and has since naturalized in many temperate areas around the world. Both selective and non-selective herbicides are used for control of R. armeniacus. It is a notorious invasive species in many countries around the world and costs millions of dollars for both control and in estimated impacts. himalayan_blackberry_usda. "It can grow in dry soils, wet soils," Shaw says. Himalayan blackberry … Oregon, USA: Oregon State University. anoplothyrsus Sudre and other cultivated blackberries in Italy. They spread by underground runners, and by tip rooting of the arching canes, and by seeds. Mature plants can reach 15 feet in height. It has been reported that a single cane cutting can form a thicket of 5 m in diameter in less than two years (Soll, 2004). The fruits are commonly collected by berry pickers in both Europe and the USA. http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/detail.asp?weed=111#pagetop. Data Source. Control is recommended but not required because it is widespread in King County. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_ruar9.pdf, The Plant List, 2013. 7 (25/26), 93-97. Himalayan blackberry is an introduced invasive species of Rubus that originates in Armenia. Young plants grow over the dead canes, producing a tangled thicket than can be hard to remove. 230 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<1D5B8F73011E204E91062137E2134886>]/Index[202 57]/Info 201 0 R/Length 127/Prev 676858/Root 203 0 R/Size 259/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), First introductions were for horticultural purposes, Root and cane cuttings can establish new plants, Rubus hedycarpus subsp. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Preslia. > 0°C, dry winters), Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. ID 72323 Symbol Key RUAR9 Common Name Himalayan blackberry Family Rosaceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Introduced to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, DC, DE, HI, ID, IL, KY, MA, MO, MT, NJ, NM, NV Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus Focke), a perennial woody shrub native to western Europe, reproduces by seed and vegetatively. Version 1.1. Tuexenia, 18:95-102. General: Himalayan Blackberry is a mostly biennial bramble, mostly recognizable by its prickly stems and edible black berries.. Specific strains of the rust have been used to control other invasive Rubus species in Chile, Australia and New Zealand (Peters, 2012). This is also the case in South Africa (Molewa, 2014). R. armeniacus is often found along waterways suggesting that natural dispersal of the seeds along waterways is common. Mercier D, 2012. The environment in practice 0629, Bern, Madeleine Florin, Consultant, The Netherlands. New growth (leaf buds) on the native high-bush blackberry is somewhat fuzzy. Cutting and burning both effectively remove the above ground part of the plant but must be repeated multiple times over a number of years because the root crown will continue to re-sprout. Müll.) In Oregon, the Himalayan blackberry, Rubus armeniacus, is classified as a noxious weed, and there’s almost no chance of eradicating it. 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